|3 credits. The course examines small-holder management systems in the tropics from several different perspectives. A brief overview of tropical forest ecology is provided first, with an emphasis on the factors that limit the nature and intensity of resource use. An analysis of silviculture as applied forest ecology follows, together with a description of the major silvicultural systems employed commercially throughout the world. The distinct operational and contextual differences between conventional and indigenous forms of forest management are presented, and the three main types of indigenous silvicultural practice are defined and described in detail. Examples from Asia, Central America, South America, and Africa are provided to illustrate each system. The relative economic, social, and ecological benefits of community forest management are discussed in detail, and the major constraints to a greater acceptance and application of the "conservation through sustainable use" paradigm are highlighted. A selection of case studies is used to examine existing policies that regulate the use, management, and trade of forest resources by local communities. A final lecture and discussion weave together these themes to assess the overall potential of managed landscapes as a viable conservation strategy.