|2 or 3 credits. Why does U.S. environmental law work reasonably well to achieve its declared objectives, but energy law does not? Since the 1973 Arab oil embargo, every president has declared as a central goal of national policy for the United States to become less dependent on imported oil, but until recently our "addiction" to imported oil (in the words of George W. Bush) increased. Will the recent boom in shale gas and unconventional oil change all that and turn the United States into an energy exporter? This research seminar examines national energy law and policy since World War II with the objective of understanding why the legal techniques that we have applied have been so unsuccessful in achieving their declared objectives. We focus particularly on policies intended to stimulate renewables and other alternative sources of energy, including energy efficiency. This course considers renewables not in isolation but in dynamic interrelationship with policies toward conventional fossil sources of energy. A third unit is by arrangement with the instructor. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Self-scheduled examination (Web) or paper option.